Corruption

Historical facts saying that corruption is an old, if not the whole world, then the power. Under the same term "corruption" most economists understand how history tell the public the use of their own. Thus, the corrupt can be used as a visa officer at the issuing department (it is referred to as public corruption), as well as a political party (political corruption), as well as the company manager (corruption in the private sector). Korupcionieris sells itself on unauthorized property bribe, which can occur both as cash, or "gifts" of the material or the office ierādīšana, an expression of benevolence etc.. Is no question that corruption is deleterious for normal development of the country, but what to say about interest lobbying? What then is the real interest and what is its path?
In any democratic country where citizens have a right to communicate with their elected leaders and other government officials to express their interests and aspirations of national policy and its implementation. Similar rights of the citizens enjoy themselves organizations, as well as businesses.
European level, this right is enshrined in the Protection of Human Rights Convention, in Article 10. In other words, everyone has the right to freely express their views. These rights include freedom of opinion and the right to receive and impart information and ideas without interference from public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article protects the rights of lobbyists, as the information and dissemination, as well as the reception is a key element of a legitimate lobbying.
Between lobbying and corruption should not require equal sign in lobbying in the legislative framework of the interest. But the world is not unanimous, or lobbying should be regulated by special law - the European Commission and European Parliament's views in this respect is different.

The notion of lobbying records.

State institutions in their public processes pārvaldošajā operation guided by the information held on the affairs of society, which they collect themselves, or receive an official application form from the natural or legal persons. This message does not mix and can not be the whole society lives in detail wide. Therefore, it is understood by many individuals, but especially - pašdarbīgo organization of business and the desire to inform public policy and government employees about their problems, which could have a public role, and the resolution would call state aid. Before submitting a formal complaint or request for public assistance, it is appropriate to discuss freely the atmosphere of the competent officer for the resolution of a matter and the importance of public opportunities to participate in solving it in such a way that this conversation would not be formal in nature, which the office holder is bound. Therefore, it would not have to be the official office premises, but outside of those institutions or anterooms waiting, lounges behind or lobbyists. Such informal contacts between government officials and customers, who won the Latvian monster sounding name of lobbying, the abstract theory would be considered not only as normal, but even desirable for public awareness of the population, unless the technical, social and psychological reasons, it would be public institutions Anti-impact hazard.
It is important to define lobbying as to regulate, it is necessary to determine the adjustable nature of the phenomenon. The literature, mass media and people's everyday language of lobbying, or certain of its elements is denoted by different terms. English language has at least two widespread notions that are sometimes also used as synonyms in part to lobbying - Public Affairs (public affairs), and government relations (government relations). These concepts tend to use more appropriate to describe the scope or in order to avoid distortion of the negative image. Another concept is present in the literature - of interest representation. Some argue that lobbying is not an adequate expression used to work the majority of people do in this industry, if the lobbying mostly understood what the point of view the direct defense of public policy. Lobbyists, or, more precisely, political consultants do not themselves carry out the defense point of view, but it helps make its customers. In such cases, sometimes used the concept of "government relations", which, although also includes the lobbying of its narrow sense, extends to a wider range of services.
Political science theory can be found in many different definition of lobbying. In trying to find the most accurate, the result is the following - lobbying is a long-term, coordinated action, in accordance with the legislation in force, which is carried out with the aim to influence public decision-making through direct relations, tools and information used to create a dialogue with the public decision-makers.
Lobbying as pašdarbīga political impact on national institutions in place a wide range of forms, it is both productive and the role of anti-national policies, sometimes even of their own officers korumpēšanā. Removing it is not possible, but some countries are attempting to contain and control with the help of institutionalization. Thus, for example, lobbying the United States since 1946 has been allowed by the law which stipulates that persons or companies who want to deal with it, are allowed to rent space and the means of public institutions in buildings or in the vicinity, they are issued permanent passes but on the condition that they declare, in what matters and how the interest will be subject to lobbying, as well as their assets and income. The organization there are about 15 000, and they represent both groups, though adherents of peace, trade unions, the "green" movement, the town committee, etc. In Germany there is no specific law on lobbying, but there are rules on the association of the Bundestag and their representatives in the registration. Unlike the U.S., these rules apply only to entities that have to be from its name, address, number of members, as well as its own area of interest. By registering them is not necessary to provide an overview of the funds. The information provided is useful only for themselves rather Bundestag members, so they know how strong the (representative) bodies, they are dealing. A third approach exists in France, and differs significantly from the two previous ones. Lobbying, and lobbying is prohibited on the basis of the National Assembly Rules of Procedure. But according to the 1958. Constitution of the country operates Socio Economic Council (Conseil économique et social), which consists of national professional groups, whose mission is to provide opinions on all bills affecting the respective industries. Basically, this board operates as an original lobby parliament. Similar formations also exist in Austria and the Netherlands.
Lobbying is usually carried out by professionals who are familiar with the decision-making body, manages the government relations and public affairs and who are able to convincingly argue in favor of interest groups. For good reason the U.S. has been lobbying the occupation classification. About lobbyism most national legislation is called, those lobbying for the provision of services receives payment. In countries where lobbying is regulated, the rules determined by lobbyists, registering, which may be voluntary or mandatory.

Meaning of corruption perception.

It is preferable to first clarify the definition of corruption and legal awareness in order to later be able to compare previously viewed the concept of lobbying and corruption is common and distinctive features.
Corruption - public authorities and regulatory bodies officials abuse their own official position or any other activity prohibited by law after mantkārības or other personal interest, as a result they find themselves in ietekmējamā position and depending on the business, financial or other groups, which are endangered officers' capacity to meet its Service in Action national interests.
More interesting is the N. Machiavelli's proposed "anti-corruption" concept - the possibility of public use of privately.
Meaning corrumpire Roman Law was understood as a general rule (broke), damage, destroy, falsify, tamper and a referendum on illegal activities, such as in relation to the judge. This concept arose from the Latin words "correi" - Several members of one of the parties to an object and the only "rumpere" - terminate, spoil, violate, cancel. Consequently, the establishment of an independent term, which was established in several (not less than two) parties, whose aim is "damage" to normal court proceedings or public management process.
The concept of further development in law narrows the scope of the sign and was identified as a service "marketability" (purchasing, bestechung, corruption). International public normative documents understands corruption. This includes taking actions or omissions while in office or by reason of such obligations demanded the cause or a result of the gift, promise or incentive to the illegal receipt each time any such action or inaction. Although stressed, the notion that corruption must be in conformity with national law. UN documents on the international fight against corruption, there's also a "corruption" definition - it is a malicious use of state power to obtain private benefits. It is evident that corruption stemming from the bribery. This concept includes also kukuļņemšanu (wage provision to seduce a person of the debtor's lines), nepotism (guardianship of the personal relationship based) and the unlawful misappropriation of public funds for personal use. Job term international group of corruption is even broader: defined as bribery, corruption and any other person who is entrusted with certain duties in public and private sector that leads to the violation of duties, entrusted to them by their status of public official, private employee, independent agent or other types of relationships and is managed with the objective of obtaining illegal benefits for self and others. In this case, acts of corruption can be seen not only in the party. Also includes a tool, the UN Secretariat's presentation of the various countries' experience base. Defines corruption as:
1. theft, robbery and the person in office
2. the abuse of personal benefit of receiving unjustified (promotions, benefits) the formalization of the informal use.
3. conflict of interest between public duty and personal greed.
Corruption is bribery or any other government officials for action to be directed towards using a service condition, or beyond their powers they would obtain unfairly benefit themselves or other persons.
Service abuse is included in the crimes perpetrated against the state. Criminal Law 318. Article provided offense impartial party gets active in activities which have caused significant damage (the material a crime). Fault with their actions did not exceed the powers, but acted within the limits, which take place in his jurisdiction, or those who are not his competence, but which can also be done via the state. However, the offender used a position of bad faith, because it is not acting in the interests of the service, but unlike them, leading to significant damage to their operations in the national government or regulatory order, or by the law protect the rights and interests.

Lobbying and corruption, the common and distinctive features of Latvia.

The main thing which needs to point out - between lobbying and corruption should not require equal sign. Of course, the corruption and bribery to influence decision-making process allows a certain interest, but they are engaging in illegal activity, which threatens punishment. In contrast, lobbying, or interest is a process that is realized in the legislative framework. However, no consensus on the issue of whether there is a special rule, which regulates lobbying. For example, two major European Union institutions - the European Commission (EC) and the European Parliament (EP) is a completely different position. If Parliament, after approximately 10 years of discussions, has introduced a special lobby activities on regulatory requirements, the EC, stressing his openness to all groups in society, nothing more than a voluntary acceptance of ethical codes does not work out.
From the public administration point of view in principle difference from the corruption of civilized lobbying lies primarily algoritmizētās strict procedures to decide the existence, providing free membership from interested parties and decision-making race. In this way, the parties that came in the decision-making will extend to the required maximum, which would allow fully anticipate the interests and positions. Although opposed to corruption, not only reduces the number of participant decision-making process, but also to determine the number by random selection, which leads to failure to society's efforts the decisions taken and their low level. And lobbying, as well as corruption occurs with respect to highly developed and primitive capital effects tools for the country. They improve the functioning of their respective companies with developed market and totalitarian societies.
Latvia also, of course, is no exception, and lobbying for the legislation, undefined and unregulated, there are. This is demonstrated not only a separate private company offers, but also implemented examples. One of the most recent and most associated with the movement of alcohol law and the underlying norms that beer is not considered to be alcohol.
Although lobbying is a normal democratic political process and in many countries it is among the professions in the existing research on lobbying show that lobbying in Latvia are corrupting aura.
February 2004 carried out a study saying that 65% of parliamentary members and 62% of entrepreneurs surveyed believes that lobbying is a rather negative undertone. Political Valts Kalnins points out that "a great part of Latvia's population policy process in which the natural evolution lobbying, treated with distrust and even overtly disapproving attitude juzdamies themselves marginalized. Latvia - like in many other countries - the word "lobbying" people often have negative perceptions in blakusnozīmes, associated with corruption, bribery, friends and other political issue occurring adverse events. This negative attitude on the one hand is the basis for lobbying in Latvia, great importance has been corruption. "
It could be said that Latvia now lobbying of corruption is difficult to separate the interests of defense is made of mixed form, which also explains the concept of negative lobbying kvazinozīmi society. I'd like to say that the lobbying activities in Latvia is the goal, but corruption is a tool that will help realize the objective. Unfortunately, we still have long jāpilnveidojas to be able to separate corruption from lobbying. Older people in an almost self-evident is to go to a doctor or a government official with a small gift, something for which there is no specific footnote "bribe", but rather, it is indeed "gift", which meant that the officer would like to listen and help. It is a permanent Soviet usual procedure, when it was afraid that you are hearing and will not help if neieinteresēsi official.
DR. Arto Jokinen, the European Commission's Enterprise Directorate-General Administrator, United Business Institutes lecturer and lobbyist with many years' experience: 'lobbying - it is talk, bribe - it is money or other benefits to illegal offering and providing. Corruption is the illegal benefits they generate. As a lobbyist, you can offer a responsible official dinner, you can invite to a business meeting in a golf field. The notional amount by which the gift or benefit is considered to be a bribe, is 100 euros. Lobbying is a direct personal contact, which plays a major role in the ability to convince the lobby, and is not criminally punishable, as opposed to bribes. "

Lobbying and corruption, unbundling of the European Union.

Nice decision on the institutional reforms, which also set a new number of votes in EU Council of Ministers and Members of parliament brought the issue of state lobbying the European Union. As is known, Lithuania, Belgium, after the initiative was able to increase their number of votes in the Council of Europe to seven, while Latvia and Estonia was divided into only four votes. Lithuania's success gave a basis to inquire whether the Department of Foreign Affairs of Latvia Latvia enough lobby national interest.
Clearly, lobbying is a very important role in the European Union's decision-making, and it is a matter of EU policy-making mechanism. Virtually all countries, organizations, business forums and the structure of each country seeks to defend its interests, and make yourself a maximum of favorable decisions. Already during the negotiations prior to EU accession by each Member State shall endeavor to reach the next of their interests and help to resolve problems themselves. An example of this would be the events of the previous enlargements of the Union - for example, Great Britain, during negotiations with the EU suffered from a serious crisis in industry, in particular, sharply manifested in areas where coal was developed. During the negotiations, the UK sought to achieve the EU's support in addressing these challenges, it also succeeded, but the resulting structures of the EU began in the regional policy-making. By contrast the British experience of entering the EU, successfully took over Sweden in their interests lobbying in parliament through its mediation of friendly countries, and thereby gaining support for its northern regions.
It should be lobbying the EU is not only the transnational level - lobby for their interests in local government, regions, cities and businessmen, for example, the city lobby the EU is very strong, and as an example of this is that the associations of the city was able to make the EU during the period from 2000 and 2006, continue to realize the city supports the program, which was not originally intended.
The answer is that your interest lobbying various governmental entities may use different methods. First, formal organizations can build their own representation in Brussels, and thus provide an operational receiving information about the decisions taken by EU institutions and the prevailing atmosphere in there, which is very important. Second, it is noted that any national body there is a possibility to cooperate with your country's official representative. In addition, the organizations represented in Brussels represent their own networks, promoting a common interests - for example, local field, it is the commission, which operates also in Latvia. In this - the official - a way, organizations can participate in discussions, to raise their proposals, to obtain useful information and to inform the other.
But very important are also lobbying with the informal means - building a personal, friendly contacts with other sectors concerned and the officials. Europe is assumed that the purpose of obtaining information and contacts for human-friendly Calls for lunch, where the unofficial atmosphere can hold a conversation on topics of interest to yourself. Such lessons informal contacts is very large, and it gives really good results.
Most countries have already acknowledged the distinction between lobbying and corruption, because the majority of EU countries, lobbying is regulated in law, including the rules for lobbying legitimacy of the Law "On the lobbying activities."

You can view the definition of corruption as well as corruption, examples of Latvia.

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